Luch Break Ki pose :D




This me Me.. today office Lunch Break Post.. hehe.. well i don't care what people say about me.. but i love being for who i  am.. to me i love the way  iam i am here not to impress anyone... haters gona hates.. lovers gona  love..  doesn;t matter if you are damm good guy.. in the end life fuck us all.. so prepared to be fuck by life.. before life fuck you.. you should proably fuck life as well in that way you will enjoy life.. hahahaha.. whatever.. 



The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

Jesus is the Son of God, then Who is the mother of Jesus, I mean God's Wife

The Otherday i got curious about this Question , so i ask question in gotquestion.org, below are the answer provideded which i am sharing with you because i think that if you have the same question with me it could really help you..


This is my question
Q: So i know that, Jesus is the Son of God, then Who is the mother of Jesus, I mean God's Wife, Yet i know Mother got pregnant by Holy Sprit then, Holy Sprit will become the biological father of Jesus,
To me Jesus have three Father, 
1) God, 
2) Holy Sprit  who got pregnat mary 
3)Josheph  ,
And his biological mother is mary,, then who is his Heavenly Mother ?

Can you clarify me  please

With Regards


C Jambiakmuan


Answered by: Gwen

Answer:
Hi, there. Thanks for your question. God does not have a wife. God is One God, but in Three Persons - Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. This is known as the concept of the Trinity. There is no "heavenly mother." The articles below should clear some things up for you. Please write back if you have more questions.
Question: "What does the Bible teach about the Trinity?"

Answer: 
The most difficult thing about the Christian concept of the Trinity is that there is no way to perfectly and completely understand it. The Trinity is a concept that is impossible for any human being to fully understand, let alone explain. God is infinitely greater than we are; therefore, we should not expect to be able to fully understand Him. The Bible teaches that the Father is God, that Jesus is God, and that the Holy Spirit is God. The Bible also teaches that there is only one God. Though we can understand some facts about the relationship of the different Persons of the Trinity to one another, ultimately, it is incomprehensible to the human mind. However, this does not mean the Trinity is not true or that it is not based on the teachings of the Bible.

The Trinity is one God existing in three Persons. Understand that this is not in any way suggesting thr ee Gods. Keep in mind when studying this subject that the word “Trinity” is not found in Scripture. This is a term that is used to attempt to describe the triune God—three coexistent, co-eternal Persons who make up God. Of real importance is that the concept represented by the word “Trinity” does exist in Scripture. The following is what God’s Word says about the Trinity:

1) There is one God (Deuteronomy 6:41 Corinthians 8:4Galatians 3:201 Timothy 2:5).

2) The Trinity consists of three Persons (Genesis 1:1263:2211:7Isaiah 6:848:1661:1Matthew 3:16-1728:192 Corinthians13:14). In Genesis 1:1, the Hebrew plural noun "Elohim" is used. In Genesis 1:263:2211:7 and Isaiah 6:8, the plural pronoun for “us” is used. The word "Elohim" and the pronoun “us” are plural forms, definitely referring in the Hebrew language to more than two. While this is not an explicit argument for the Trinity, it does denote the aspect of plurality in God. The Hebrew word for "God," "Elohim," definitely allows for the Trinity.

In Isaiah 48:16 and 61:1, the Son is speaking while making reference to the Father and the Holy Spirit. Compare Isaiah 61:1 to Luke 4:14-19 to see that it is the Son speaking. Matthew 3:16-17 describes the event of Jesus' baptism. Seen in this passage is God the Ho ly Spirit descending on God the Son while God the Father proclaims His pleasure in the Son. Matthew 28:19 and 2 Corinthians 13:14 are examples of three distinct Persons in the Trinity.

3) The members of the Trinity are distinguished one from another in various passages. In the Old Testament, “LORD” is distinguished from “Lord” (Genesis 19:24Hosea 1:4). The LORD has a Son (Psalm 2:712Proverbs 30:2-4). The Spirit is distinguished from the “LORD” (Numbers 27:18) and from “God” (Psalm 51:10-12). God the Son is distinguished from God the Father (Psalm 45:6-7Hebrews 1:8-9). In the New Testament, Jesus speaks to the Father about sending a Helper, the Holy Spirit (John 14:16-17). This shows that Jesus did not consider Himself to be the Father or the Holy Spirit. Consider also all the other times in the Gospels where Jesus speaks to the Father. Was He speaking to Himself? No. He spoke to another Person in the Trinity—the Father.

4) Each member of the Trinity is God. The Father is God (John 6:27Romans 1:71 Peter 1:2). The Son is God (John 1:114Romans 9:5Colossians 2:9Hebrews 1:81 John 5:20). The Holy Spirit is God (Acts 5:3-41 Corinthians 3:16).

5) There is subordination within the Trinity. Scripture shows that the Holy Spirit is subordinate to the Father and the Son, and the Son is subordinate to the Father. This is an internal relationship and does not deny the deity of any Person of the Trinity. This is simply an area which our finite minds cannot understand concerning the infinite God. Concerning the Son see Luke 22:42John 5:36John 20:21, and 1 John 4:14. Concerning the Holy Spirit see John 14:1614:2615:2616:7, and especially John 16:13-14.

6) The individual members of the Trinity have different tasks. The Father is the ultimate source or cause of the universe (1 Corinthians 8:6;Revelation 4:11); divine revelation (Revelation 1:1); salvation (John 3:16-17); and Jesus' human works (John 5:1714:10). The Father initiates all of these things.

The Son is the agent through whom the Father does the following works: the creation and maintenance of the universe (1 Corinthians 8:6;John 1:3Colossians 1:16-17); divine revelation (John 1:116:12-15Matthew 11:27Revelation 1:1); and salvation (2 Corinthians 5:19;Matthew 1:21John 4:42). The Father does all these things through the Son, who functions as His agent.

The Holy Spirit is the means by whom the Father does the following works: creation and maintenance of the universe (Genesis 1:2Job 26:13Psalm 104:30); divine revelation (John 16:12-15Ephesians 3:52 Peter 1:21); salvation (John 3:6Titus 3:51 Peter 1:2); and Jesus' works (Isaiah 61:1Acts 10:38). Thus, the Father does all these things by the power of the Holy Spirit.

There have been many attempts to develop illustrations of the Trinity. However, none of the popular illustrations are completely accurate. The egg (or apple) fails in that the shell, white, and yolk are parts of the egg, not the egg in themselves, just as the skin, flesh, and seeds of the apple are parts of it, not the apple itself. The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not parts of God; each of them is God. The water illustration is somewhat better, but it still fails to adequately describe the Trinity. Liquid, vapor, and ice are forms of water. The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not forms of God, each of them is God. So, while these illustrations may give us a picture of the Trinity, the picture is not entirely accurate. An infinite God cannot be fully described by a finite illustration.

The doctrine of the Trinity has been a divisive issue throughout the entire history of the Christian church. While the core aspects of the Trinity are clearly presented in God’s Word, some of the side issues are not as explicitly clear. The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God—but there is only one God. That is the biblical doctrine of the Trinity. Beyond that, the issues are, to a certain extent, debatable and non-essential. Rather than attempting to fully define the Trinity with our finite human minds, we would be better served by focusing on the fact of God's greatness and His infinitely higher nature. “Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out! Who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor?” (Romans 11:33-34).

Recommended Resources: Making Sense of the Trinity: Three Crucial Questions by Millard Erickson and The Forgotten Trinity by James White.

Below is the best symbol fo r the Trinity we are aware of (click to expand):
"Trinity


Read more: http://www.gotquestions.org/Trinity-Bible.html#ixzz3gk8zoY59

"Mary
Question: "Is Mary the mother of God (Theotokos)?"

Answer: 
The phrase “mother of God” originated with and continues to be used in the Roman Catholic Church. One of the topics at the Council of Ephesus in AD 431 was the use of the Greek term TheotΓ³kos, or “God-bearer,” in reference to Mary. That council officially proclaimed Mary as the “mother of God,” and the doctrine was later included in the Catholic catechism. The idea behind calling Mary the “mother of God” is that, since Jesus is God and Mary is the mother of Jesus, she is the mother of God.

The major problem with this logic is that the term “God” implies the totality of Yahweh, and we know that Yahweh has no beginning and no end (Psalm 90:2). First Timothy 6:15-16 says that God is immortal. Being immortal, God never was “born” and never had a “mother.” The second Person of the Trinity, Jesus, did have a beginning to His earthly ministry when he was conceived in Mary’s womb and was born, but from eternity past He had always been the Son of God.

Philippians 2:6–7 gives us a bit more insight on what transpired when Jesus left heaven to become man. The New Living Translation says, “Though he was God, he did not think of equality with God as something to cling to. Instead, he gave up his divine privileges; he took the humble position of a slave and was born as a human being.” Jesus was already one with the Father, but He set aside His rights as Divinity and took the form of a baby (John 1:1). He went on to live the normal life of a Jewish boy, obeying His earthly parents (Luke 2:51).

A mother by definition precedes her child and at some point is more powerful than her child. So to call Mary the “mother of God” gives the misleading implication that Mary preceded and at one time was more powerful than the Lord God Almighty. Although Catholic doctrine tries to deny this implication, it is inescapable.

It is biblical to say that Mary was the mother of the Lord Jesus Christ during His incarnation on the earth. However, Catholics believe it is not enough to say that Mary was the mother of Jesus. Pope John Paul II, in a speech in 1996, encouraged people “not only to invoke the Blessed Virgin as the Mother of Jesus, but also to recognize her as Mother of God” (L'Osservatore Romano, 4 December 1996, p. 11). This is not biblical. The Lord God Almighty has no mother, since He has no beginning and no end (Genesis 1:1Revelation 4:8).

Recommended Resources: The Gospel According to Rome: Comparing Catholic Tradition and The Word of God by James McCarthy

Read more: http://www.gotquestions.org/Mary-mother-God-theotokos.html#ixzz3gk93piCN

The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

If Apes Evolved into Humans, Why Do We Still Have Apes?

by John D. Morris, Ph.D

This question often crops up among evolution disbelievers. And while it underscores the truth that most people truly don't believe man came from rats, fish, and single-celled organisms up through the primates, it ignores the fact that evolutionists have a ready answer to it.
First, evolutionists strongly deny the idea that men came from the apes. They insist that both man and the apes came from a hypothetical ape-like ancestor, the evidence for which has not yet been discovered.
Secondly, evolution does not propose that all members of a type evolved into another type, but that only a small group of individuals, genetically isolated from the others, evolved, leaving the others to remain the same.
A perceptive person will recognize that both of these points are nothing more than story telling. The hypothetical ape-like ancestor does not exist, and there is no evidence that it ever did. The "peripheral isolates" claim may sound reasonable, and there are recent examples of isolated groups acquiring new traits through adaptation, but none of any group acquired new suites of functioning genes through random mutation, such as production of either an ape or a man from an ape-like ancestor would require.
Instead of asking why we still have apes, we should be asking why don't we have the hypothetical ape-like ancestor, the real missing link? Or, why don't we have the required intermediate forms? How can such change happen? The claim that transitional individuals were few in number, and thus unlikely to be fossilized and discovered, rings hollow. The fact is, we don't have them! The evolution claims are only stories. In their story, man and apes diverged from the imaginary ancestor some seven million years ago. Surely some would be fossilized.
We should also ask, how could such a transition happen? The only way we know to acquire new genes is to alter existing genes through random mutation. The best alteration science has observed has produced only novel recombinations -- most deteriorate the genetic information and thus harm the offspring. Many mutations are fatal. Evolution requires trillions of innovative mutations to produce man from lower forms, and at least millions to produce man or apes from an ape-like ancestor. None have been observed.
Evolution tales are pseudo-scientific stories about an imaginary history. Evolution is best understood as an anti-God origins myth, attempting to explain man's existence without a Creator. We can do better.
*Dr. John D. Morris is the President of the Institute for Creation Research.
Cite this article: John D. Morris, Ph.D. 2006. If Apes Evolved into Humans, Why Do We Still Have Apes?Acts & Facts. 35 (11).









The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

Sikha lauh di hilou

Sikha/ghost.. Kei gingtak dan in ah mihingte' i kha in leitung a nutsiat chia si kihi hi a.
 Leitung a sikha om thei dia gingta lou kahi.. Sikha chia i gensek pen uh dawi nasep/ setan nasepna hizaw din ka gingta..
 Sikha omna dia ka gingtak chu Meidil toh Vangam khat zo sam2 om di uh..
 Ka thugelh na gingtak ua le sikha lauh na di omlou.. Sikha muh naki chih le lauh louh ding ahi.. Dawi ahi..
 Dawi na lauh le chu na khalam ki enthak in.. Hotdam tate adia dawi lauh na di om kasa kei.. 
I lauh zok di Pathian thangpaihna ahi.. 
Huaiziak im sikha kichi lauh di hilou.



The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

An engineering student attended a medical exam by mistake. See his answers... πŸ‘‡


1. Antibody - One who hates his body .

2. Artery - Study of Fine Paintings .

3. Bacteria - Back door of a Cafeteria .

4. Coma - Punctuation Mark .

5. Gall Bladder - Bladder of a Girl .

6. Genes - Blue Denim.

7. Labour Pain - Hurt at Work .


8. Liposuction - A French Kiss .

9. Ultrasound - Radical Sound .

10. Cardiology - Advanced Study of
Playing
Cards .....

11. dyspepsia : difficulty in drinking
pepsi.

12.Chicken Pox- A dish

13.CT Scan: Test for identifying person's
city

14.Radiology- the study of how Radio
works

15.parotitis : inflammation of parrot

16. Urology: the study of european
people



πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚

The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

RULES AND REGULATIONS OF ZOMI NATIONAL WORKERS WITHIN the ZOMI RE-UNIFICATION ORGANISATION


INTRODUCTION

We, the Zomi National Workers, resolutely affrim and give to ourselves this Rules and Regulation on
this day of the Thirty First October Two Thousand and Eight Anno Domini.
This Rules and Regulations is divided in to two parts. The two parts are binding to all the workers
within the Ministries under the ZRO. The Ministries may refer articles and sub-clauses in either or
both the parts whichever is relevant to them.

Central Executive Committee
Zomi Re-unification Organisation
Headquarters : Ciimnuai

PART-I
Category-A: Entry List of Tribunal {(Constitution Part-IV, Art. 74 (A)}
Introduction
In the event of any dispute regarding homicide/murder, the Tribunal may refer its finding to the
Cabinet Council, and the Cabinet Council may take decision as per the case
Capital punishment is the highest kind of punishment that can be awarded and such may be
awarded only after proved beyond reasonable doubt
Cabinet Council/Tribunal may take its own decision as per the intensity/severity of the crime/
offence committed.
Tribunal List
1. Any Zomi National Worker shall unreservedly commit to ZRO working policy, national
policy and collective leadership
2. No one shall organise/mobilise volunteer which is detrimental to ZRO and Zo nation
3. No one shall violate ZRO Constitution, Bye-law and rules and regulation framed from time
to time and oppose the aims and objectives, policy and programme of ZRO
4. No one shall sale/conceal/squander/siphon-off the properties and cash of ZRO
5. No one shall, without authorized by superior, shall cause physical handicap or cause to
inflict major/serious illness
6. False witness is prohibited
7. False accuse is prohibited
8. No one shall, without any reasonable reason, refuse to produce records/documents or
anything which the Court summoned
9. Judges shall judge without partiality
10. If the act or conduct and commissions of a Zomi National Worker is grossly Immoral that all
reasonable men will say that he/she cannot be trusted
11. If the worker is abusive or if he disturbs the peace of his working place
12. If he is assaulting, insulting and insubordinate to such a degree as to be incompatible
with the continuance of the relation of superior and worker
13. Raping of a woman is prohibited. Rape means forcible sexual intercourse without the
consent of a woman by means of overpowering/threatening/intoxicating/force etc.
14. No ZRA cadre shall collect money without the approval and knowledge of ZRO.
15. No ZRA cadre shall involve in mutiny.
16. No ZRA cadre shall desert with or without arms.
17. No ZRA cadre shall indulge in shameful acts of homosexual/lesbian/gay.
18. No ZRA cadres shall direct/point his/her weapons towards his/her comrades in time of
stress and outrage.
www.theirwords.org
CATEGORY- B: Entry List of Non-TRIBUNAL
Introduction
In Category- B, punishment may be awarded to without referring to the Tribunal. However,
based on the gravity and severity of the crime/offence committed, it may be referred to the
Tribunal
PUNISHMENT/ACTION ON MISCONDUCT
• Reproof/ Warning,
• Caning,
• Punishment without using sick,
• Demotion excluding the rank of officer and above can be done by the concern Ministry
Non-Tribunal List
1. There shall be no discrimination based on clan, dialect, domicile
2. The secrecy of the Organisation shall be strictly confided, no one shall leak/destroy the
properties/documents of the Organisation
3. No one shall engage in discouraging/mind-blogging of his/her co-workers
4. No one shall abuse power
5. Workers shall be a role model in conduct, manner, intoxicating, opposite sex and not to
involve in robbery.
6. It is strictly prohibited to feign illness/prolong illness/causing intentional injury and helping
to cause injury to abdicate from responsibility
7. It is strictly prohibited to rob properties/money by means of threatening/cheating
8. It is strictly prohibited to pass intentional false information and due to which someone is
adversely affected.
9. It is strictly prohibited to indulge in drunken brawling/fisticuff during on duty
10. It is strictly prohibited to indulge in habitual intoxicating, sale, manufacture, brew,
purchase, distribute
11. To take care of public properties and not to destroy
12. Contempt of judgement and threatening Judges or fail to appear before Judges or unwilling
to take oath
13. It is prohibited to create din/obstruct Cabinet Council meeting, Central Executive
Committee meeting and Annual Assembly meeting
14. If the act or conduct of the Worker is such that the superior cannot even rely on his/her
faithfulness
www.theirwords.org
15. Wilful insubordination or disobedience, whether alone or in combination with others to
any lawful and reasonable order of a superior
16. Habitual absence without permission and wanton negligence of duties
17. Theft/stealing is prohibited within the rank and file of ZRA
18. No ZRA cadre shall refuse and dishonour the directive of his/her superior.
19. No Battalion shall intrude into the area of another Battalion without the knowledge and
consent of ZRO/Defence Ministry. Clandestine meeting of Battalion Commanders without
the knowledge and approval of ZRO/Defence Ministry is prohibited.
20. No ZRA cadre shall withdraw/flee/hide in the battlefield without the directive of the
Commander.
21. No ZRA Officer/superior shall, without any reasonable reason punish/harass/threaten
his/her subordinates.
22. Except in case of life and death, no ZRA cadre shall fire even a single shot without the
direction of Battalion Commander.
23. No arms shall be displayed to threaten anyone without any directive from superior.

PART-II
GENERAL GUDELINES
1. ENROLMENT
i. All Zomi irrespective of their tribe affiliation/loyalty be accorded priority, apart from anyone
voluntarily willing to serve Zomi and Zogam
ii. Once enrolled into ZRA, a cadre has to serve at least seven years and cannot quit in his/her
own chosen time. However, in case of extreme hardship, a cadre may quit with the approval
of the Organisation after taking an oath

2. PROMOTION
i. There shall be a promotion course to secure promotion.
ii. A cadre may be promoted based on his/her performance during the Promotion Training
Course, seniority, Educational Qualification, character, command and control, discipline.
iii. Enlisted cadre from Graduate and above shall after completion of Basic Combat Military
Training serve as Private for six month. After the completion of six month, promotion
training course shall be arranged and based on his performance/fitness/ability he/she may
be accorded rank.
iv. To grant promotion from 2nd Lieutenant & above, the knowledge and consent of Cabinet
Council shall be obtained.
v. List of Precedence:
a) General
b) Lieutenant General
c) Major General
d) Brigadier
e) Colonel
f) Lieutenant Colonel
g) Major
h) Captain
i) Lieutenant
j) 2nd Lieutenant
k) Sergeant Major
l) Sergeant
m) Corporal
n) Lance Corporal
o) Private

3. LEAVE
i. A cadre may visit his homestead only in emergency and unavoidable circumstances with the
permission of Battalion Commander and the consent of Defence Director has to be
obtained.
ii. A ZRA cadre shall be declared a “proclaim deserter” if he continuously absent from his/her
post for 20 days.
4. CLOTHING
i. All Battalion shall maintain clothing register. The clothing register shall be in the custody of
Quarter Master (QM) and shall furnish a monthly report to the Battalion Commander and
that shall be dispatched to the Director, Ministry of Defence and shall be monitored
monthly.
ii. The Ministry of Defence shall set a life-system for clothing. Clothing includes both uniform
and civil dresses.
iii. In the event of loss due to laxity and misplacement of clothing, no cadre shall receive
clothing before the expiry of the life-term.

5. ARMS AND AMMUNITIONS
i. Arms and Ammunition shall be issued to every Battalion. Battalion QM shall maintain a
register. Since it is a control item BQM shall furnish daily report to the Director, Ministry of
Defence.
ii. Arms and Ammunition shall be the sole responsibility of Battalion Commanders & BQM. Any
loss or misplacement shall be severely dealt with.

6. FACILITIES
i. The ZRO, within its capacity, shall look after and extend assistance to the problems and
hardship of ZRA cadres.
ii. In the event of health problem faced by a ZRA cadre during out-of-post, he shall
immediately report to the Battalion Commander and necessary assistance may be rendered
with. Such assistance shall not be accorded to those failing to report to the Battalion
Commander.

iii. In the event of death during active service, a cadre may receive an ex-gratia as permissible
under rules enforce for the time being. He shall be draped with any Zomi shawls. Military
honour shall be accorded as and when convenience.

iv. No cadres shall get married before completion of 5 years of active service. No cadres shall
be entitled financial assistance if he/she marries before completion of 5 years of active
service. Cadres marrying after completion of the stipulated time shall receive necessary
assistance. In the case of woman cadre marrying/intending to marry, there shall be a
formalities to quit if she so desire.

v. Service benefits shall be earmarked for a ZRA cadre from the day of taking oath of loyalty as
decided by the Central Executive Committee Annual Assembly from time to time. If he/she
faithfully and satisfactorily serves for 7 years and retires with the consent of the
Organisation, the sum amount shall be handed over to him/her on the day of his/her
retirement. However, service benefits shall cease as and when a cadre receives welfare
benefits. In case of retiring due to health problems/household chores with the consent of
the Organisation and a cadre who dies during service is entitle to benefits. But a cadre who
is terminated for disciplinary action shall not receive service benefits.


DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF ZOMI NATIONAL WORKERS WITHIN THE ZRO
Zomi National Workers shall:-
a. Maintain absolute integrity at all times;
b. Maintain absolute devotion/dedication to duty at all times;
c. Maintain impartiality in discharging of duties;
d. Maintain a responsible and decent standard of conduct in private life;
e. Render prompt and cautious service;
f. Manage private affairs in such a way as to avoid habitual indebtedness or
insolvency;
g. Respect superior in rank;
h. Not indulge in acts, which are unbecoming of a Zomi worker;
i. Not be discourteous, dishonest and partial;
j. Not adopt dilatory tactic in dealing with the public;
k. Not be a member of any association whose objects or activities are prejudice
to the interest of Zomi political movement, public order or morality;
l. Not consume any intoxicating drinks or drugs;
m. Not discriminate subordinate in rank
n. The Zomi Re-unification Organisation, considering its lethal and destructive
potential, treated the use of landmine as inhumane and a gross violation of
human rights and as such committed itself not to produce landmine and its
related components and exert its power and resources to eradicate landmine
and educate other revolutionary groups not to indulge themselves in the
inhumane act of producing, using and stock-piling of landmine.

Source :Geneva Call








The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

Brief Early History of PAITE as Compiled in ZO HISTORY by Pu Vumson


Paihte or Paite is a name given by the Lusei and Pawi to people living in Tedim, in the southern and eastern parts of Manipur district and in the Somra Tract.
 Thaute or 'fat people' is also a name given to them by the Lusei.

 Among Paite themselves thaute refers only to the Sizang. In literature the term Kuki also covers part of the Paite. The clans of the Paihte are Guite, Ngaihte, Teizang, Thado (Khuangsai), Sukte, Sizang, Khuano, Saizang, Vaiphei, Baite, Gangte, and Yo. Most Paite clans claim to be descendants of Songthu, who is listed as one of the earliest Zo men. In the absence of written records however less important men have been forgotten, and only those with power have been remembered. Songthu, or Cawngtu, must have been a powerful man, as Songthu songs are still sung in ceremonies among the Lusei and Paite

The Paite tell of early settlement in the Tuikang or Chindwin valley, where they lived with the Khamang people, who may have been the Shans. According to Vum Ko hau97, the migration of these people to the hills was due to the oppressiveness of the Shan Sawbwa of Kale. Lai Biak Thanga39 also mentioned a cruel king as the reason for the Lusei's migration to the hills. Vum Ko Hau dated the time of the Sizang's migration to the hills as 1374, the time when the Kale Sawbwa was building the Kale palace.
The Paite claim they first settled down at Ciimnuai when they migrated from the Kale-Kabaw-Myittha valley. Ciimnuai offered them good cultivable land, but sometime during the sixteenth century Ciimnuai grew so overcrowded that people moved away. Some of-the Paite moved south, or 'down the hill side'; thus they were called "Sukte", a people going south. They founded their home in Mualbem. Sizang, Thado, Vaiphei and Yo said they lived together for many years, until the Sizang and Thado quarreled..... and so on if you Click this Link


The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

THE ARRIVAL OF WESTERN EDUCATION AND CHRISTIANITY IN MANIPUR

Written By  IAP_MHA_CTL
1. BACKGROUND:



Gospel Centenary Gate in Lamka
    Before going to the topic directly, a historical background will help us to understand the arrival of the British, Christian Missionaries and starting of Western (English) Education in Manipur.  Maharaja Surchand Singh (1886-1890 AD),  the eldest son of Chandrakirti Maharaja  ascended the throne after his father in 1886.   Since his accession, Manipur had become a divided house - the ten sons of the late Maharaja by his six queens were divided into two groups, one led by Surchand Singh and the other by Tikendrajit Singh, the flamboyant and the most popular prince,
who was the idol of the masses; at the age 31 he was the most capable prince.  The dissensions, quarrels and mutual mistrusts and rivalry among the princes culminated in the Palace revolution of 1890; the immediate cause being the ban order by the Maharaja on the 17 year old prince Zilangamba to sit in the durbar as a result of his quarrel with Paka Sana, otherwise known as the arch enemy and rival of  Jubaraj Tikendrajit, the Senapati. Zilangamba and Angousana made an attack on the palace in the night of 22 September, 1890. The week-willed king was totally unnerved and fled to the British residency without putting up a fight.  It appeared that the king and his brothers were demoralised and
greatly frightened at the revolution which they knew was engineered by Tikendrajit himself.  Kulachandra, the jubaraj, who wanted to take a neutral position for obvious reasons and went to Bishenpur in the night of attack, was recalled to Imphal and crowned the new King of Manipur. Surchandra with his brothers and his followers left Imphal for Calcutta
in the pretext of going to Brindabon. He requested the British Government to restore his throne. Lord Landsdowne, the viceroy of India ordered Mr. J.W. Quinton, Governor of Assam, to recognise Kullachandra as the King but to arrest Jubaraj Tikendrajit. Accordingly, Mr. Quinton and his army raided the residence of Jubaraj without prior notice.
However, Tikendrajit was not at home as his informers tip the plan off. In further attempts, Mr. Quinton, Mr. Grimwood, the political agents along with five other British officers were killed.

    The British Government declared open war against Manipur. Three columns of army were sent to Imphal from three directions: 1. Tamu (Moreh)- in south-east, 2. Kohima (Nagaland)- in the north and 3. Cachar (Assam)-in the west. In this Anglo-Manipuri war, the forces from the west and north advanced to Imphal after strong fighting. But in the south  at Khonjom (40 km from Imphal), Paona Brajabashi and his army resisted repeatedly in spite of the larger and superior British Army. Paona lost his life on the war and the British conquered Manipur on 27th April, 1891 AD. Jubaraj Tikendrajit and Thangal General were hanged by neck at 5 p.m.on 13th August, 1891 AD at Mapan Kangjei-bung (Polo ground). Manipur's independence and sovereignty which were so long preserved throughout the
centuries and millenniums had now lost. But Sir James Johnstone, the political agent from 1877-1886, writing five years after the war, cautioned, "Let us beware, we have not heard the last of Manipur".  On Thursday 22nd of Langban (September), 1891 AD,  the Political Agent in Manipur called Maharani Moirangthem Chanu and Jubaraj Churachand (8 yrs old) and made him the king.  Maxwell was appointed the Political Agent of Manipur and Superintendent of the State.  The instructions given to him  (Maxwell) were that "he should excercise those powers with due regard for the customs and traditions of the Manipuris and should endeavour to interfere as little as possible with the existing institutions, in so far as they might be compatible with the peace and good order".  After Churachand's formal investiture to the throne of Manipur on 29 April 1892, the young Raja was admitted to Lord Mayo's College at Ajmer, Rajasthan, for his education.

    The first office of the British Political Agent in Manipur was established in 1835, long before the Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891,  and Lt. Gordon was appointed the first Political Agent in Manipur. The presence of a British Political Agent in Manipur, according to a treaty signed between the two sovereign countries, was to increase trade and
commerce between Manipur and the British and to help each other from outside invaders, - Ava in the case of Manipur and  the Burmese and other Indian reactionaries  against  the British.  During the time, Chandrakirti Singh, a minor boy, was the ruling monarch of Manipur and his uncle Nara Singh was the Regent.

    Imphal, the capital (Kangla)  was a  centre for all  literary and intellectual activities of Manipur for centuries.  The Kings of Manipur were great patrons of learning and learned men. The Pandi (Maichou) Loisang, the Department of Scholars, was the main center of the intellectual life of the Kingdom.  Thus, a huge literature dealing with all branches of knowledge has now come down to the present day.  The Meiteis had their own script and scriptures written in leaves and barks of trees.  In  the first quarter of the 18th century during Meidingu (King) Pamheiba  (aka, Maharaja Garibaniwaj),  the King accepted Hindhuism as a Royal Religion in place of the original Meitei faith of  Sannamahi and ordered the burning of all religious scriptures related to Sannamahi, which is still remembered  as "Puya Meithaba".  A number of  Hindu Brahmins from Bengal replaced the Meitei Maichous in the Loisang and Temples,  and with time,  Bengali script and language were introduced in the Kingdom.  More than one hundred years later, when the British took over Manipur in 1891, the King and his Assembly (darbar) were devoted Hindus, and the Meitei population had embraced Vaisnavism after decades of resistence.  Bengali was introduced as a medium of instruction in religious rites and education.  However, with the coming of the British and Western education, the literary work began to carry
out independently of the King's patronage,  although  the King and his Assembly  had a strong political influence and control over educating the citizen. In 1872,  a school was established at Imphal, but it had to be closed down due to the lack of encouragement from the authorities. Dr. G.H. Damant published the Meitei script for the first time in 1877
for the Asiatic Society of Bengal.  In 1885, the Johnstone middle School, Imphal,  was established after many years of objections from the Darbar.  As a reward  of  friendship and help in establishing  the school,  Sir James Johnstone agreed to address Thangal Major,  Balaram Singh and  Roma Singh Major as "General".    [Sources: History of Modern Manipur (1826-1946) edited by Dr. Lal Dena, 1990; History of the Christian Missions in Manipur by Karam Manimohan Singh, 1991]. With this brief background, we now go to the arrival of the first Christian Missionary and starting of English Education in Manipur.

2. THE ARRIVAL OF REV. WILLIAM PETTIGREW AND THE AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONARY IN MANIPUR:
Rev. W. Pettigrew
The Baptist Missionary Review
Vol. XXXVIII, November, 1932 No. II
Manipur State 1891-1932.

    I wrote an article for the Baptish Missionary Review in 1915, entitled, "On the right hand side of the Road, YES; on the left hand side, NO". From January 1891, when I first set foot on Indian soil, and heard two months later of the terrible massacre of seven Britist officers in Manipur, including the Chief Commissioner of Assam and the Political
Agent of Manipur, until our return from furlong in 1915, there had been a decided NO on any attempt to branch out into the hills and valleys south-east, south-west, or north-west of the strip of country wherein the Tangkhul Naga dwells, and amongst who we were allowed to establish ourselves under the A.B. Mission  in the beginning of the year 1896.

    From the day we heard in Eastern Bengal of that massacre in March, 1891, to the day we were given permission to enter this native state in January, 1894, preparation in language study and for the experiences ahead of us were the order of the day.  That permission was given by a British Officer in charge of the State at that time, since the newly
appointed Rajah, who succeeded the usurper who was executed, was but a young Hindu lad.  For twelve years, until this boy ascended the gaddi and very conservative Hindu Darbar was inaugurated, both civil and military British Officers rendered the A.B. Mission grateful service and financial help along educational lines under the conditions laid down.

    It is well to remember that no Christian missionary had ever been allowed into the state, nothing is revealed in the annals or histories, whether written by Indians or by British officials, to show that Christianity was even as much as known.  I have searched the Widener Library at Harvard, the Boston Library at Boston, the congressional Library at Washington, and the British Museum at London, to find out how William Carey got into touch with a Manipuri, or omeone who had knowledge of the Manipur Language, and translated and prinited at Serampore, in 1831 portions of the New Testament into Manipuri in the Deb-Nagri character. No clue of any kind was found, and in Manipur itself no tradition or story is existence of any Christian missionary entering the State until the way was providentially opened in 1894. And this after three years of patient waiting almost at its doors.

    The conversion of the Manipuri Hindu in the valley was our goal. Knowledge of Bengali and Manipuri, gathered while waiting outside the frontier, had prepared the way for this work but it was not to be.  The Government of India recognised their responsibility of governing the State until the Hindu Rajah could come of age, hence the propagation of the Christianity among his Hindu subjects was not allowed.  This refusal come six months after I entered the State.  To accept either one of two conditions was the alternative sent us from Shillong a year and a half later: Say "Yes" to the proposal of leaving the valley alone, and establishing mission head-quarters among the head hunting Naga tribe
called the Tangkhul Naga in the hills in the north-east corner of the State, bordering on Upper Burma.  Say, "No" and leave the state for good.  This was the ultimatum given to us in November, 1895.  It is interesting to note that a few months before this announcement was made, one of the villages of the tribe had been raided and over 140 heads cut
off and carried away.  We established ourselves under the A.B. Mission at Ukhrul the most central village of the tribe, in February, 1896.

    To understand the situation in those early days clearly, one must not forget the fact that A.B. Mission workers were confined, under pain of dismissal from the State, to one little corner of the State in the north-east, and this from 1896-1916, twenty years.  The Maharaja of Manipur and his Darbar have always recognized the A.B. Mission, and have annually subscribed a Grant-in-Aid for education.  The Darbar, however, have never so far as I can remember, acceded to any request to lengthen our stakes, increase the number of missionaries, and branch out to other
tribes in the State.  The Maharaja under the advice of Political Agent, or the Governor of Assam, has listened to petitions from me, and from the Reference committee in Assam several times since 1915, and has
vetoed actions of the Darbar.

    This is the situation during those twenty years of confinement. One tribe, one language, that had to be reduced to writing, and that in a dialect among many dialects in the one tribe.  We were just as much confined in our work as a South Sea Island missionary was confined to one small island among many, or as a Moravian missionary in Leh,
confined to some place on the border of Tibet, with restrictions all around him.  During those twenty years that little word "NO" figured a good deal in our thinking.  However much we sang the hymn, "Send the light, the Gospel light", we were up against a wall of opposition to prevent the spread of the Gospel outside the north-east confines.  While
working in such limitations, away from our ‘ain folk', 45 miles distant from the capital of the valley, 134 miles from the railway and its communications, amid animistic fear and supertition, and the fight against the devil and all his works, God moves in that corner of the State in a company of believers.  God moves in a mysterious way His wonders to perform.  After waiting seven years in the first converts we had a lone church and the one lone school.  Still they both have served their purpose, and have been a means of bringing many outside the closed area to Christ, and with manifold service in the many Christian communities that are now scattered in all the hills surrounding the valley of Manipur.

    In looking back over those twenty years of isolation, it has been borne upon the hearts of both Mrs. Pettigrew and myself, that in view has appened in the years following, there  is  sure indication of God's leading.  Under the conditions prevailing during that long period, it was a privilege to lay foundations, to teach the converts,  though small numerically, to bear responsibilities from the very beginning.  They were taught the meaning of self-support,  self-government in church and the village affairs, and self-administration of their own funds. The word of God cannot be confined.  It is the same all over the world, and especially among hill peoples of Assam and Burma.  There is something in their mental make up that urges them to go forward, and in spite of barriers and persecution, even by their nearest and dearest,
they preach the Gospel, suffer persecution from their village chiefs and elders, and spread the news around wherever they may go.  Up to 1915 the lone church at Ukhrul among the Tangkhul Nagas reported sixty-three members, the majority of them Tangkhul Nagas.  The year 1932 reports the largest number of church members among this tribe, and the largest number of organised churches.  Just as it should be, for they had all the opportunities for cultivation and nurture during those years of isolation among them.

    In 1912, I was asked by the Political Agent, Colonel Shakespear, to visit the other side of Manipur - the side which had "NO" printed in large letters in the mind of the Darbar.  A severe famine cause much distress among the Lushai Christians of the south-west area of the State and because permission to allow a missionary family to establish
themselves in the section was withheld, I was asked to visit the land and report on the conditions there.  As I look back on that landmark, I am persuaded that my contact with other tribes during tht visit was one of the seasons for the subsequent ingatherings from year to year.  1913 and 1914 were quiet years while we were on furlong.  On our return in 1915, the lone school in Ukhrul was ready to turn out young Christian men, who had come in as heathen boys from heathen villages of the south-east, south-west and north -west hill areas of the State.  They for the most part had followed me to this north-east corner, when I visited the famine-striken villages in 1912.  And so 1916 saw petitions
coming to us from a small group of Thadou Kukis in the north-west area, another group of Kom Kukis in the Sadar area north and west of the capital and still another from the Anal Kukis in the south-east area, praying for teachers and pastors to come over and help them organise themselves into companies of believers based on the training and
teaching of the parent church at Ukhrul.  This lone church whose converts had been trained and taught during those years of isolations, and now were so manifestly made ready for the time when the Lord decided those years of isolations, and now were so manifestly made ready for the time when the Lord decided the hindrances and restrictions, encountered for so long, should be swept away, and the other twenty odd tribes of the State have the same previlege which the Tangkhul Nagas had had for so long.

    Not only were there these Naga petitions but there were also a strong on from our Assam Reference Committee to the State Darbar, praying for permission to allow the missionary, his wife and his workers, to visit and evangelise the tribes in the north-west area of the State.  This was allowed in 1916 through the good advice of the Political Agent to the Maharaja.  In 1917, when the prospects were bright for the ingathering of converts from among the Thadou Kukis, Kon, Anal and Kabui Nagas, a further petition from the Assam Reference Committee to allow the headquarters of the A.B. Mission to be removed from the isolated station at Ukhrul, to a more central part of the State, was granted by the Maharaja. The present head-quarters are at Kangpokpi,  on the motor road which runs from Imphal, the capital to Dimapur on the Assam-Bengal Railway.  And in this way the Lord opened up in the hills of all directions for the preaching of His word, and the gathering in of many souls of His praise and glory.

    I would like to close this article by giving interesting stories of the men and women who are now leaders, superintending pastors, school teachers and headmasters, among the 7000 Christians of A.B. Mission. These are now scattered among the principal hill tribes of the valley. The men and women mentioned above had their training at the school at Ukhrul in the days of isolation.  They had been the mainstay of our Baptist work in Manipur.  From 1915 onto converts have increased year by year in a normal way; from 63 in 1915, 235 in 1916 and 335 in 1917. Each year has shown marked progress in numbers.  The year 1923-1934 broughtus a revival in which over 1000 were baptized.  There are Christians in over 100 villages now.  There are no "NOS", - no more restrictions.  The surrounding hills are all open to the message of the Gospel.  Only the valley with its Hindus and Mohammedan population of over 280,000 is still closed to the missionary and his message.  The latest tribe to respond to the Gospel is the Mao tribe of Nagas, an important tribe at the estreme north of the State, bordering on the Naga Hills district.  The village of Mao is twenty miles from the town of Kohima, our nearest A.B. Mission station.  The Somra Tract which borders on our Tangkhul Naga country in the north-east area, and which is under the administration of the Government of Burma, has during the past year been opened for evangelistic and educational work.  This work in the Somra Tract is to be controlled and supported by the Tangkhul Naga and Thadou Kuki Christians of Manipur, under the supervision of the missionaries of Manipur.  Just a few weeks ago our leaders got together, and in spite of the economic situation  affecting all of our Christian communities in Manipur, brought sufficient cash with them to help support two teachers for the Somra Tract during this year.  Those two young men, one a Tangkhul Naga, and one a Thadou Kuki, are now on their way to open work for the Master in that unevangelised country.

    Since 1915 education among the Christians has naturally been much to the fore in our efforts to make the community an intelligent one.  I believe that 1931 census will show a surprising increase in the statistics for literacy, and Christians will form the bulk of that increase. Lower primary, upper primary schools, and a middle English school at Kangpokpi, are in full swing.  The vernaculars in three of the most important tribes are first taught, then Manipuri and English as
secondary language.  High school students from among the Christian community are studying at Jorhat and Imphal.  The son of one of the first boys to enter the school at Ukhrul in 1897 is now in Cotton college Gauhati.  A large number of boys who graduated from Ukhrul are to be found in different walks of life in the State, serving in various
capacities for the State as well as for the A.B. Mission.  A large number also are serving under the three associations as evangelists, teachers and pastors.  All church buildings, all pastors, and village teachers are supported by association funds. Village school buildings and equipment are supplied by the village owning the school.

    The present day Darbar of the State with intelligent and educated membership is now moving along progressive lines, due in a large measure to the energy and activity of the present President of the Darbar, Captain C.W.L. Harvey.  In 1891 there was just one school in the capital of the Hindu and Mohammedan population, and that of the very poorest. Now in 1932 there are primary schools in many villages in the valley, upper primary schools and two high schools in the capital.  An interesting story could be told of the way in which the second of the two high schools was established and carried on by the support of the wide-awake Manipuris, and of the latest recognition of same by the Darbar and the generous grant bestowed upon it.  We are expecting to see the majority of our high school Christian students to attend this school, with a Christian hostel under the control of the A.B. Mission workers.  This we hope to see erected this year in the Christian community compound in Imphal.

    Only a few years ago female education among the Hindus were frowned upon.  Now there are a number of schools for girls in Imphal.  Hence there is a brighter outlook all round, even the attitude of mind of the State Darbar, and a progressive spirit shown among the higher class students in Imphal.  Less of the exclussiveness of the old days, but a
progressive spirit will to co-operate in everything that loosens the slavery to old customs and habits.  Our Christian young men, having broken way from fear of evil spirits and their animistic practices, are rejoicing that they can see ways of co-operating with the progressive party which will evidently rebound to the praise and glory of the Lord Jesus Christ.

    We are confident the Lord has been working in the hearts of all in Manipur to accomplish His purpose, and for this manifestation of His will, we are grateful to Him for allowing us to have a part in it, and to have been accounted worthy to carry on from the very beginning, the pioneer work of evangelising and educating hill tribes, out of whom He is calling a people for His Name's sake.

Kangpokpi, 1932.
[Source: Tangkhul Baptist Long Centenary Sovenier, 1996, pp 40-43].


3. ABOUT REV. WILLIAM PETTIGREW:

    William Pettigrew was an Englishman born in Edinburg, Scotland on January 5, 1859 and was educated in Livingstone College, London. He was at first a member of the Anglican Church but latter he was convinced of
the inadequacy of infant baptism and therefore accepted Beliver's baptism while he was in Daka, Bangladesh, working as a Missionary under the Arlington Aboriginese Mission.  However, he remained an Anglican and worked under the same Mission till he join the American Baptist Church at Sibsagar in 1896. Not long after he joined the Baptist Mission he was called and ordained to the Gospel Ministry.  The same year in November 13, he was married to Alice Gorehome of Brighton, England.  The marriage took place in the Lower Circular Baptist Church, Calcutta. [Source:
Johan M. Solo  and K. Mahangthei (editors) in "Forty Years in Manipur Assam, An account of the work of Rev. and Mrs. William Pettigrew,  pp. vii-viii, 1986].

    Pettigrew had indeed a broad vision. He was instrumental in bringing the various hill tribes together and his contribution towards the integration of the people of Manipur remained unparalleled. As far as possible he encouraged inter-tribal marriage.  As a matter of fact, the first inter-tribal marriage took place between Ruichumhao from Somdal
village and K. Yangnu from Kom Tribe.  At the same time, A. Porom Singh, one of the first converts among the Meiteis, also married a Tangkhul girl and their eldest son, Dr. Koireng Singh is quite well-known among the people of Manipur.

    Even before Pettigrew entered Manipur, he studied Bangalee and Manipuri (Meiteilon).  When he work as a headmaster of the Johnstone School he insisted that Manipuri must be the medium of instruction in all the schools of the state.  He was also an Honorary Inspector of Schools in Manipur.  Bengali, which had so far been used as the medium of instruction, was immediately replaced by Manipuri on the initiative of Pettigrew.  It was through his efforts that Meiteilon had developed independently and finally becomes the official language of the state and is even included now in the 8th schedule of the constitution. In this way Pettigrew laid the foundation of the Manipuri Literature and language. [Source: Y. D. Luikham - Rev. William Pettigrew's Message of  Oneness, in: Rev. William Pettigrew (A Pioneer Missionary of Manipur), p94, 1996].

    Rev. W. Pettigrew wrote a Manipuri Grammar. The title of the book is "Manipuri (Mitei) Grammar" with illustrative sentences.  The book consists of 111 pages and it was published at the pioneer press, Allahabad in 1912. The book is written in English. [W. Tomchou Singh -Rev. William Pettigrew's Message of Oneness, in: Rev. William Pettigrew
(A Pioneer Missionary of Manipur), p 34, 1996].



4. WATKINS R. ROBERTS AND CHRISTIAN MISSION IN SOUTHERN MANIPUR:

    Watkins Roberts, a young missionary from Wales, was responsible for the early conversion of Hmars in the Churachandpur district of Southern Manipur.  It wa on Saturday, 5 February 1910, that Roberts, who had his
base at Aizwal, Mizo Hills, came to Senvawn, a biggest Hmar village in Tipaimukh, in response to the invitation from the village chief, Kamkholun. Roberts soon recruited native workers among the new converts for the new Thado-Kuki Pioneer mission at Senvawn.  William Pettigrew visited Senvawn in March 1912. Since only one missionary group was
permitted to work in Manipur at that time, Roberts changed the name of his pioneer mission in to the North East Indian General Mission (NEIGM) in 1919.  His group spread its areas of operation into the North Cachar Hills, Assam, Tamu, Burma and Tripura. [Lal Dena - Christian Proselytism 1894-1946 - in History of Modern Manipur 1826-1946, p 109, 1991].

5. CONCLUSION:

    Rev. William Pettigrew and the Christian Missionary's contribution to Western Education in Manipur in general, and particularly among the Hill people, is remarkable.  Manipur owes a life time of gratitude to this One Man Army.

Special thanks,  for providing valuable materials,  are to:

Rev.  Sangai Yangya and
Rev. Joelouis Songate
Reformed Theological Seminary
Jackson, MS, USA

Source: Manipurpage







The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam