How to open link in new tab in simple way


First of all you will need this code

<base target='_blank'/>


 Follow the following step below

  1. Go to your blogger dashboard.
  2. Select your blog then Click Template.
  3. Backup your template.
  4. Click on “Edit HTML”
  5. Press Cntrl+F and Search <head> tag in HTML.
  6. Add the following piece of code just below the <head> tag.
  7. Save your Template, 
  8. Check if it work, it work yay.. comment below :D (^.0)
Well you don't need to add  Java script for this.  Just add <base target='_blank'/>   inside
 <head> </head>  tag will do.

Like this dude


You wana test,, click any link in my blog it work right . Comment below if it help :D



The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

Paite ADC in Mizoram, India

Mizoram a Paite MLA'te
The Paites are indigenous tribes of Mizoram under the Greater Assam state since 1300 AD. The Tribal Research Institute of Mizoram  in their published book,”Paite in Mizoram” stated that the Paite people entered the present Mizoram along with  Palian Chief of Lushai around the first half of the 17th century. The first census of Lushai Hills by the British in 1901 have recorded that there were 2,870 Paites in Mizoram. In 1921 census, there were 10,460 Paites in Mizoram. But in the subsequent Census operations Paites was not found in such records as ‘Paite’. This injustice is difficult to understand for the minority tribes. If census is carried correctly on ethnic line, the Paite population
will
not be less than one lakh (1,00,000) in Mizoram state. The Union Government has recognised Paite as one of the tribes in Mizoram vide The Gazette of India Notice No. 10 of 2003 date January 8, 2003 of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Act, 2002.The Paite are not a refugee they are the original inhabitants of Mizoram. Truly speaking,  Paites are larger than the Lushai; they live in Chin state of Burma, southern Manipur and north eastern part of Mizoram.
Young Paite in their Traditional attire
The essential criteria for the creation of Autonomous District Council which is mentioned in the VIthSchedule of the Indian constitution such as; distinctive culture, geographical isolation etc. are fulfilled by the Paites of Mizoram. P.R.Kyndiah, former Governor of Mizoram in his book “Mizo Freedom Fighters” stated that the northern territory of Mizoram was inhabited by Paite and their kindred groups. At present the Paite people are living in thirty two(32) compact villages in the north eastern part of Mizoram. The geographical area occupied by the Paite people is about 2,000 Sq.KM which is fit for creation of new District Council to meet aspiration of the Paite community. The Paites are socially and culturally distinct from other tribes of Mizoram. Major Shakespeare, the then first Superintendent of Lushai Hills said that Paite dialect is unintelligible to Lushai. He also recorded that Paite have distinct culture and custom.

The essentiality for creation of a separate  Regional Council for more backward tribes in  the north eastern part of  Mizo district was supported by the report of the then H.V.Pataskar Commission for the re-organization of Assam Hill areas in 1965-66 which was as follows:
“The dissatisfaction of the small tribe is most marked in the Mizo and North Cachar Hills district and is from them that a large number of representations were received by us. We, therefore, give below a brief description of these tribes, their grievances and allegation made by them. In Mizo district this number of smaller tribes is relatively large. The Lushai, composed of the Ralte, Lushai and Hmar clans constitute the dominant tribes in that district. The smaller Tribes are the Paite in the north east, the Lais(Pawi) and Maras(Lakher) in the south east and Chakmas in the south west Mizoram. Most of them have a number of sub tribes also. The smaller tribe live in a remote area, which has led to their being isolated from the main stream of the socio-economic life of the district. They require separate entity.
The Paite people have a long history of Non Violence movements in Mizoram since a long time. In the year 1950, few intellectual Paite founded the Mizoram Paite Federation(MPF). They demanded for Regional Council under the VIth Schedule of the Indian constitution within the Mizo district of Assam state. But the movement failed due to the anti chieftainship agitation of the Mizo Union(MU) movement. The movement was again revived in 1960s under the banner of  Paite National Council (PNC).The movement again  failed due to the Mizo National Front(MNF) outlawed insurgency movement since 1966. They thought that the Paite people were against the MNF movement. In order to stop the Paite demand for Regional Council, the MNF killed the Paite leaders. Being a peace loving people by nature, the Paite never think of retaliating violence for violence. They have in mind that the Lushais are their own brother. After statehood of Mizoram, the PNC (now PTC) again demanded for an autonomous district council again and again.
Now, the Lais, the Chakmas and the Maras have Autonomous District Council in south Mizoram under the sixth schedule of the Indian Constitution. But the Paite people’s demand was totally reject altogether. If the Govt. of Mizoram agree and  have created Autonomous District Council even for the non Mizo tribes like Chakma,  why not for the Paite? In order to safe-guard the custom, culture and traditions of   Paites and to achieve faster socio-economic development, they need to have an Autonomous District Council (ADC). Sixth Schedule, Para 20, Table 1 of the Constitution of India, guaranteed Special Provision and protection for backward and minority communities in India. So, the Paite have right to demand an Autonomous District Council in Mizoram. Please do not object and let us support their demand as far as possible. The creation of   Paite Autonomous District Council in the North Eastern belt of Mizoram will strengthen the solidarity and integrity of Mizoram state. It will fulfil the socio-economic and political aspiration of the ethnic groups of the demand area. It will not hamper the Mizo unity, at the same time it is important for the development of Mizoram state. The Paites accepted that they are also Mizo. In order to make Mizoram a develop state; the development should touch each and every corner of the state. In fact, Development does not reach the interior part of the Paite area. The Paite should be given the opportunity to have Autonomous District Council. They deserve to have a separate Autonomous District Council to preserve, promote and propagate their literature, custom, culture and tradition etc. in Mizoram.

References:

1. Chatterjee, Subhas Dr. (1990):”Mizoram Encyclopedia”,…
2. Kyndiah, P.R(1994):”Mizo Freedom Fighters”(P29,para 3), Sanchar Publishing House, New Delhi.
3. ———– (1990):”Paite in Mizoram”,Tribal Research Institute, Aizawl.

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The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

Petition to PM of India

LETTER TO

Prime Minister of India
The President of India,
National Human Rights Commission, India
Ministry Of Tribal Affairs
Ministry of Law and Justice
Ministry of Minority Affairs
Government of India

Stop killing! Separate administration for tribals of Manipur.

On the 31st August, 2015, the Manipur Assembly passed 3 Bills namely the Protection of Manipur People Bill, 2015, The Manipur Shops and Establishments (Second Amendment) Bill, 2015 and the Manipur Land Revenue and Land Reforms (Seventh Amendment) Bill, 2015. The bills passed, identified as a direct threat to the very existence of the various ethnic communities in the state, are condemned and highly contested in the hill areas. The tribal populace and their representatives were not consulted in the whole process of adopting, drafting and passing of the aforementioned bills amounting to a clear violation of the constitutional safeguards of the tribals where it is mentioned that the tribes will solely have decisions pertaining to their land.

The Constitution of India in its Article 371C provides special provisions for Manipur. This Article provides the base for the formation of Hill Areas Committee - made up of 19 members elected to the State legislative Assembly from all the tribal areas - was envisaged to be the guardian of the tribal interests. The law dictates that the HAC must be consulted in all legislative matters affecting the hill area of the state. Further, the state governor must send the President annual reports on the administration of the hill areas, and the Central Government has the power to give direction to the state government regarding administration of these areas.

Various tribal organisations and institutions have made their voices heard, conveniently disregarded by the Ibobi led government led to wide scale protests in the hill districts. The protests and strikes are held continuously and have completed 16 days as of now. In bitter turn of events recently, the tribals who were persistently harassed, oppressed, exploited and neglected for decades, expressed their grievances through demonstrations which led to the death of 9 innocent civilians including a minor; mercilessly gunned down by the Manipur Commandoes sent from the valley districts.

The Manipur tribals were historically independent and were never a part of the Manipur, culturally or traditionally. The recent sleazy attempt by the Meiteis in collaboration with the Manipur Government to seize the lands of tribals and the inhumane treatments received time and over again are clear illustrations of the conditions of the tribals in the state.

Therefore, we take this opportunity and choose this platform to make our suppressed voices heard. In order to attain peace and restore normalcy in the tribal areas, we humbly request your honour to:
● Consider the rights of the tribals provided by the constitution of India and repeal the passed bills aforementioned.
● Issue an official CBI enquiry to the deaths of 9 innocent civilians.
● Arrange a separate administration for the tribals under the existing provisions in the Indian Constitution.














https://www.change.org/p/prime-minister-of-india-the-president-of-india-national-human-rights-commission-india-ministry-of-tribal-affairs-ministry-of-law-and-justice-ministry-of-minority-affairs-government-of-india-stop-killing-separate-administration-for-tribals-of?recruiter=387316960&utm_source=share_petition&utm_medium=twitter&utm_campaign=share_twitter_responsive

The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

Itna Masuan in



Hiai Picture January 24 2012 nu a ka facebook  a ka upload ahi,, A limlak ah kei toh Mate, 2011 kum a lim kaki lak khom lai uh tuang a thu ki gelh pen ahih le "Itna masuan in " chih laa Muana Ngaihte Sak laa a pat ka gelh khiak ahi,, A laa ngai khe chen2 in type chen2 zel.. ki peih tak ahi tu ning kho i ngaihtuah thak leh.. hiai nu (mate) chu ngaih khatak keive,, kum 3 pai nung a le ki phawk thak2 lai, bangdang le hon ngaihtuah sak kei,,

 Mel ziak a itna om hilou ahi chih chu hiai apt in ka chiang mah2 ve, Itna pen melhoih ziak a itna om le hituan kei,, Tua chu kholai a kimu lele ki leh ngat mai ta a.. 
I tuh gaih mah ki att zel ahi ana chih uh chu dik tou zel din a ki lang,,  hiaiteng khong hi tuni a dia ka gelhtheih.

*Love is Blind but when Poverty knock the door loves fly away#

The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

Land Rights of Tribal

Land Rights of Tribal and State Land Laws : Manipur
D P Panmei *

Introduction: 

The State of Manipur is divided into two regions viz. the hills and valley. Its physical area measures 22, 327 sq. km. of which the valley portion covers 2,248 sq. km. whereas hill areas cover 20,089 sq. km. The valley area is surrounded by hill and this central plain portion covers about 10% of the total geographical area of the State. The remaining 90% area is under hill regions. Different tribal communities occupy this hill region (P. Binodini Devi � Tribal Land System of Manipur). The central region of the State is inhabited by the general people Meiteis including Muslims and some tribals. 

There are about 37 tribal communities, out of which 33 had been specified as Scheduled Tribes under the Constitution of India. These different tribal communities occupy the hill region of the State and the region is divided into five revenue districts and the plain region has 4 (four) districts. The tribals' representation to the State population, according to 2001 census is 38.43%. This figure does not include the population of three TD Blocks because of some controversy in enumeration. 

The State Legislative Assembly has a strength of 60 M.L.A.s. 40 M.L.A.s represent 4 (four) valley districts of Imphal West, Imphal East, Thoubal and Bishnupur, where as 5 (five) hill districts of Churachandpur, Chandel, Ukhrul, Senapati and Tamenglong districts are represented by 20 M.L.A.s of which one is dereserved seat. 

Land holding pattern in tribal areas 

The tribals have their own system of land holding based on customary and traditional practices. The founder of the village took all risk and responsibility to establish a village and as such he earned the title 'Founder'. Later on he became the chief of the village and the first owner of the entire village territory in respect of the Naga tribals. He had parceled out the territory from the vast area after proper or due rites performance and appeased the spirits of evil world in and around the area. 

They got and occupied the land from the powers of unseen forces as they believed. They claimed absolute authority over their land. Tribals considered that the land they possessed and occupied are out of their merit. Interference to their land is therefore, opposed with tooth and nail. They are the first settler of the land. Every tribal village was independent republic without outside interference. 

Land ownership 

Tribals claimed absolute ownership over their land. The one who established the village is the first owner in Naga society. There was two to three tier system of ownership among some Naga tribes. The first owner i.e. the founder of the village had to dole out some portion of land to any of his villagers in exchange of animals like dog, pig, mithun, rice-beer, for use in his ritual performance. The one who could offer his domesticated animals, food and other goods against a piece of land etc. become the owner of that portion of land. That person becomes the second owner. 

There were some chiefs who liberally shared the land on clan basis. The third owner was the one who claimed the cultivating plots within the portion of land given to the second owner by the chief or founder. He may get it by paying a price or by barter. In this way the existence of the third owner came into Naga society. There may be some minor variations in the system even among the Naga tribals. Those villages whose cultivation is of jhuming or shifting practice do have second and third ownership system. Even in the village where settled or terrace cultivation is practiced, the same system exist. So Naga society has at least two tier system of land ownership, the first being the founder of chief and the second owner is that of cultivating plot. 

As regard to Kuki system of land ownership, the chief is all in all. He is the supreme authority in the village affairs. He owns the entire land within his jurisdiction. There is neither clan land nor individual. It is unlikely of the Naga system. He distributes land for cultivation and plot for dwelling house construction. The Kuki chief has the authority to expel any villager from the village. Villagers live at the pleasure of the chief. The Kuki administration is autocratic and the chief is the autocrat. 

The tribals as a whole have their own time tested land holding system based on traditional practices by which they are governed. They consider that the lands they possess are acquired from the nature. As such the tribals do not have any land laws except that of traditional and customary base practices. 

Before application of any land law in Manipur, the Raja of Manipur claimed absolute ownership of all lands within his territory i.e. the valley area from the earliest time and collect land revenue. On the other hand, during the British period, the administration of the entire hill area of Manipur State was under the responsibility of the President of Manipur State Durbar who was a British ICS officer. 

The hill areas were separately administered as per a set of rules known as Hill Peoples' Regulation Act. The hill areas were at no point of time under the administration of the Raja of Manipur. The administration was carried on to the tune of the Hill Peoples' aspirations and their age old traditional practices. While such was the considered administration for hill/tribal people, a land act was enacted in 1960, which had rather frightened the tribals with the land being alienated from them. 

The Manipur Land Revenue & Land Reform Act, 1960 (MLR & LR Act, 1960) 

The Manipur Land Revenue & Land Reform Act, 1960 (MLR & LR Act, 1960) was enacted by the Parliament to consolidate and amend the law relating to land revenue in the State of Manipur and to provide certain measures of land reform. Before the enactment of the State land laws, the Assam Land & Revenue Regulation Act, 1886 was applied to Manipur by a State Durbar Resolution. 

The MLR & LR Act, 1960 intends to bring about uniformity in distribution of land throughout the State. However, Section 2 of the Act says, "It extends to the whole of the State of Manipur except the hill areas thereof". Thus the Act did not apply to the hill areas of the State. Under the Act, hill districts do not automatically mean hill areas. They Act assigned a special meaning to it. According to Section 2(1) of the Act, hill area means such areas in the hill tracts of the State of Manipur as the State Government by notification in the official Gazette declared to be hill areas. The State Government under different notifications Nos. had notified 1161 villages as hill areas in the 5 (five) Hill Districts for the purpose of this Act. 

Though Section 2, of the Act says that if does not apply to the hill areas of the State, it again says, "Provided that the State Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, extend the whole or part or any section of this Act to any hill areas of Manipur also as may be specified in such notification". The provisions for protection of the tribals had been curtailed off. The State Government under different notification Nos. had extended the provision of the Act to tribal areas. To the tribals, the extension of the Act to their areas is encroachment into their territory. The tussle between the State Government and the tribal chiefs, civil organizations etc. possess a grave situation. So far 89 villages of Churachandpur district and 14 villages each of Tamenglong and Senapati districts had also been covered by the Act (P. Binodini Devi � Tribal Land System of Manipur). 

There is a special protective provision of the Act on the transfer of land belonging to a tribal to non-tribal. Section 158 says, "No transfer of land by a person who is a member of Scheduled tribes shall be valid unless � 

The transfer is to another member of Schedule tribes; or 

Where the transfer is to another person who is not a member of any such tribes, it is made with the previous permission in writing of Deputy Commissioner provided that the Deputy Commissioner shall not give such permission unless he has secured the consent thereto of the District Council within whose jurisdiction the land lies; or 

The transfer is by way of mortgage to a co-operative society. 

The State Government had made an exceptional provision of the Act to the restriction of land transfer. This is the fear of the tribal population i.e. if the transfer is made by way of mortgage to a co-operative society, the consent of the District Council and written permission of the Deputy Commissioner is not required. This provision is a grave threat to the innocent tribals.


 D P Panmei wrote this article for The Sangai Express 
The writer is a Retd. Joint Director of Tribal Research Institute, Govt of Manipur 
This article was  Webcastedon January 10, 2010. 

The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam

MANIPUR BURNING : LAMKA ON FIRE

Lamka, August 31: A mob agitated over the passing of three bills that have infringed upon the rights of the state tribals, has tonight ransacked and set fire several properties of at least five MLAs from the district.
The mob that sprouts following a bout of alarm bells initially attacked the residence of health minister Phungzathang Tonsing located at New Lamka around 6pm. They ransacked the house and set aflame several furnitures. The fire is said to have caught the concrete structure by 7 pm as water tankers and fire tenders and the Police that had rushed to the spot were attacked and forced to withdraw.
Several of the mob then moves towards the residence of Thanlon MLA Vungzagin Valte also located at New Lamka wherein they set ablaze the security

sentry post and a vehicle.
The Deputy Commissioner Lunminthang Haokip, who has rushed towards the minister’s residence was also attacked. His official vehicle along with that of his escort’ was vandalised and overturned at Damkam Bazar.
The mob also attacked the residences of Singngat MLA Ginsuanhau Zou at Lailam Veng and that of Henglep MLA T Manga Vaiphei located at Hill Town.
The residence of TN Haokip located at Tuibuong was also burnt down by an irate mob around 7pm tonight.
Exact extend of damage caused in tonight’s mob fury was still difficult to comprehend as the situation is still simmering and the mob that had expanded across the township was still violent.
Manipur Police Commandos from Bishenpur have reached Lamka and started indiscriminate firing on the civilians with utter disregard for the life and property of the tribals. At least two persons have been killed and more than 20 have been injured. The ruthless killings speak volumes about the anti tribal attitude of security personnel which mainly comprises of Meiteis, who appear to be hellbent on what is an apparent manhunt for any tribal. Full display of the powers of the AFSPA in progress!
The state tribal population was against the bill, that is said to regulate outsiders but also scheme to discreetly remove the law that bars majority meitei community from owning tribal land, as they consider the bill nothing but an attempt to annihilate the rights they enjoy over their traditional land.
[LamkaHuihkhi]

The Author

C Jambiakmuan is a Delhi based young and dynamic blogger from Zogam